1. In formulating hypotheses for a statistical test of significance, the null hypothesis is often
A. the probability of observing the data you actually obtained.
B. a statement that the data are all 0.
D. a statement of “no effect” or “no difference.”
2. Supppose we are testing the null hypotheses H_0:mu = 20 and the alternative H_a:mu != 20, for a normal population with sigma = 5. A random sample of 25 observations are drawn from the population. Find the sample mean of these observations is x-bar = 17.6. The p-value is closet to
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